Islamic Concept of Good Governance
The issue of good governance is being widely debated all over the world nowadays. All sociologists and political scientists have a consensus that good governance has major influence for human resource development in the society. They further believe that no nation can make the dream of development come true sans developing a culture of good governance. It is inevitable for all state and non-state organizations to abide by the principles of good governance in order to move forward and attain the goal of public welfare. At the state level, it is considered important and connected with a nation’s overall development and its sustainability.
Good governance is a culture that makes people act responsibly, thoughtfully and conscientiously. In such a system, all public functionaries ought to be people of high caliber, with traits of justness and being energetic in them. An important principle of good governance is that the ruler must be sincere and of impeccable character. He must consider himself not a ruler but a servant. Similarly, he should be mindful of his every act, that it should not harm his subjects.
In Islamic concept of good governance, those in authority behave with restraint and avoid abuse of power. They act within the parameters of the law and take upon themselves the country’s concerns and hardships. They remain impersonal in the discharge of their duties and imperturbable in front of critics. They respect popular will but never go beyond their tether.
A shining example of this can be found when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) became head of the state of Madina and exemplified good governance through his acts. He created a bond of brotherhood among the Muslim citizens, concluded agreements with non-Muslims and remained concerned about their welfare. He upheld the Islamic concept of good governance and value system in which justice remains central. He declared that all humans are the offspring of Adam and that there is no difference between Arab and non-Arab (Ajam).
Islam is a religion which guides us in all aspects of human life. Our value system originates mainly from the Holy Quran and our progress is forever dependent on its application. We find a number of Quranic injunctions considered to contain the essentials of good governance.
First is the concept of amanah (trust). Allah says that to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth.
Every human being is a trustee on earth. All his possessions, including health, wealth, livelihood, power and status belong to Allah. One who performs his or her duties honestly and diligently is upholding his amanah.
Allah enjoins believers to
“…Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your amanah [things entrusted to you and all the duties which Allah has ordained for you]” (8:27).
In the light of this concept, no one in authority is absolute; one has to remain answerable to his conscience.
Those who transgress their limits are the most disgraceful, and the Quran refers to them as zalimoon.
Merit is also one of the important principles of good governance, whereby all appointments in state and non-state organisations are made on the basis of competence. Every human is born with certain inherent competencies and those who actualise their competencies with hard work, integrity and honesty get a premium.
Nature rewards them for being active and hardworking.
The Quran says
“And that man can have nothing but what he does” (53:39).
In meritocratic societies, people upgrade themselves professionally and grow economically due to their performance, competence and ability.
Islam encourages Muslims to acquire knowledge and occupy the best position in their societies. We read the life story of Hazrat Yousuf who was in captivity but was called to head the food ministry because of his high degree of competence and knowledge. He was thus able to prevent the impending famine.
Here knowledge becomes fundamental in governance. Many Western societies are ahead of us because of knowledge and it is the demand of the present time that our parliament and all lawmaking and law-enforcing bodies be occupied by knowledgeable people.
Similarly, the concept of taqwa is also closely linked to Islamic Concept of good governance. It is an all-inclusive concept which says that every believer should be mindful of Allah’s omnipresence and be aware of accountability. We live in the constant presence of Allah. No act goes unrecorded and no one escapes the accountability of his or her doings. If a public servant develops such a sense of Allah’s presence in his mind and heart, it would result in peace and well-being in society.
The absence of taqwa in any society often leads to unethical practices. For example, our present-day society is in the grip of widespread corruption. This is the result of poor governance over the years.
When a politician submits a fake degree to contest elections; when a police party kills a person in a fake encounter; when a businessman evades taxes, when a builder uses outdated material; when a teacher skimps on class work in order to sell his time privately and when a doctor recommends a drug to gain commission from a pharmaceutical firm, then the concept of taqwa is grossly violated. The foundations of society are undermined and the nation’s future is ruined.
Many think they will escape judgment but the Quran says
“And We have fastened every man’s deeds to his neck and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a book which he will find wide open” (17:13).