Psychology Including Experimental Psychology 2002


Psychology, Paper-1


Time Allowed: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100

Note: Attempt Five questions in all, including question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.

1. How did behaviorism differ from earlier schools of psychology? What were the main objections of Gestalt Psychologists about behaviorism?

2. What is the endocrine system? Discuss the role of various hormones in regulating normal human development.

3. How is “Shaping” used to condition a new response? In what ways principles of operant conditioning can be used for improving educational techniques?

4. Elucidate the differences between biogenic and sociogenic motives. How does Maslow’s hierarchy of Motives explain the relative standing of these motives? Give examples.

5. What are the main determinants of perception? Explain the effects of learning and motivation on perception.

6. Critically evaluate Freud’s theory of personality development.

7. Write short notes on any TWO of the following.
· Formation of opinions and attitudes
· Prejudice
· International tension
· Group norms



1) The junction where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron is called the:
a) Reuptake site
b) Receptor site
c) Synapse
d) Axon terminal
e) None of these

2) The autonomic nervous system differs from the somatic nervous system in that its operation is largely:
a) Involuntary
b) Voluntary
c) Controlled by the brain
d) Controlled by the spinal chord
e) None of these

3) The most fundamental principle of perceptual organization is called the:
a) Figure-ground relationship
b) Volley principle
c) Dark adaptation phenomenon
d) Law of closure
e) None of these

4) Which of the following phenomena was studied by parlor?
a) Maturation
b) Animal cognition
c) Operant conditioning
d) Classical conditioning
e) None of these

5) What can occur if a person believes that a connection exists between an act and its consequences when there is no relationship between the two?
a) Classical conditioning
b) Superstitious behavior
c) Shaping
d) Sequential learning
e) None of these

6) Advertisers place beautiful people or likeable places and objects with the products they are trying to sell because these items:
a) Distract from the disadvantages of the products
b) Cause pleasant feelings to be evoked
c) Are part of the products’ basic qualities
d) Are just elements of scenery
e) None of these

7) The body’s natural tendency to maintain a state of internal balance or equilibrium is called:
a) Arousal
b) Opponent process
c) Homeostasis
d) Instinct
e) None of these

8) Concerns with meeting standards of excellence and accomplishing difficult tasks refer to need for:
a) Affiliation
b) Achievement
c) Power
d) Apperception
e) None of these

9) Which of the following condition is not associated with prolonged sensory deprivation?
a) Inability to concentrate
b) A satisfying-relaxed feeling
c) Hallucinations
d) Confusion
e) None of these

10) Presence of others may interfere with performance due to:
a) Social inhabitation
b) Social loafing
c) Distraction
d) All of these
e) None of these

11) Psychology has been defined by psychologists as:
a) The study of behavior
b) The study of mental activity
c) The science that studies behavior and mental process
d) None of these
e) All of these

12) When we look at a distant object, we usually judge its size by:
a) Object size
b) Perspective size
c) A compromise between object size and perspective size
d) Retinal size
e) None of these

13) The view that we are born with the ability to perceive the way we do it held by:
a) Sensory psychologists
b) Nativists
c) Empiricists
d) Contemporary psychologists
e) None of these

14) The ability to focus on stimuli in which we are interested while resisting distracting stimuli is called:
a) Concentrated attending
b) Stimulus focusing
c) Selective attention
d) Structured perceiving
e) None of these

15) In Freud’s theory of personality:
a) The ego obeys the reality principle
b) The id operates by secondary process thinking
c) The super-ego obeys the pleasure principle
d) The ego operates by primary process thinking
e) None of these

16) Trail theory has been criticized on the ground that:
a) Traits may be highly dependent on the situation
b) Moderator variable are often very influential
c) They often do not specify how traits are organized within the personality
d) All of the (a), (b) and (c)
e) None of the (a), (b) and (c)

17) When we receive mixed information about a person, we tend to base our impression on the information that is:
a) Favorable
b) Unfavorable
c) Received first
d) Received last
e) None of these

18) Most of the social psychological research on attitude change has been generated by theories concerning:
a) Consistency in attitudes and behavior
b) Cognitive dissonance
c) Self-perception
d) Attribution
e) None of these

19) The public opinion survey is:
a) A passive record of opinion
b) Limited to what the public believes at one moment in time
c) Generally ignored by successful politicians
d) Increasingly helping to shape opinion as well as measure it
e) None of these

20) The objectivity of science lies in:
a) The capability of scientists to avoid the prejudices of their society
b) The choice of question studied
c) Its methodology
d) All of these
e) None of these

 Psychology Including Experimental Psychology 2002 paper II



Psychology, Paper-1I


Time Allowed: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 100

Note: Attempt Five questions in all, including question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Discuss the growth, maturation and learning is considered important to our understanding of human development.

2. Compare and contrast Longitudinal and cross sectional methods, identifying the advantages and limitation s of each.
3. What is chromosomal abnormality? Discuss the cause and consequences of chromosomal abnormalities for later development.
4. Describe Piaget’s view of the cognitive development process, and define the roles of schemes, assimilation and equilibrium in the process.
5. What are the different sources of information in clinical diagnosis? Why training and official permission is essential for a practicing psychotherapist?
6. Compare and contrast the Rationale Emotive theory of Ellis and Cognitive theory of Beck.
7. Give a critical appraisal of biological and sociological factors contributing to maladjustment of youth and crime in our society.



1) What are the problems associated with low birth weight?
a) Susceptibility to infection
b) Difficulty in maintaining body temperature
c) Susceptibility to infection
d) Difficulty with breathing, sucking swallowing and digestion
e) None of the (a) (b) and (c)
2) According to Piaget, the major accomplishment of the sensorimotor stage is:
a) Abstract thinking
b) Egocentrism
c) Centration
d) Object permanence
e) None of these
3) During the stage of concrete operations children:
a) Understand the concept of reversibility
b) Do not yet understand the concept of conversation
c) Are able to solve abstract problems
d) None of these
4) Studies show that an “authoritarian family” tends to produce an adolescent who is:
a) Dependent and obedient
b) Self-reliant
c) Independent but deserved
d) Surface-complaint but rebellious underneath
5) Child-rearing methods in Pakistan:
a) Differ little from those in other countries
b) Differ from one social class to another
c) Have changed very little over the past fifty years
d) Are now pretty much the same from one social class to the next
6) According to Erickson’s theory, the struggle during adolescence is:
a) Intimacy versus isolation
b) Initiative versus role confusion
c) Competence versus inferiority
7) A major defining characteristic of personality disorder is that they:
a) Are psychological, more from society’s view than from that of the person’s who have them
b) Reflect a lack of contrast with reality
c) Are comparatively easy to treat
d) Are frequently relative, i.e. short term responses to stress
8) The behavioral interpretation of depression relates it to “learned happiness.” The most obvious symptom of this condition is:
a) Passivity
b) Increased appetite
c) Excessive-aggressiveness when threatened
d) An increase in random maladaptive behavior
9) Behavior therapists believe that insight is:
a) A worthwhile goal
b) Non sufficient for behavior change
c) Not necessary for behavior change
d) All of these
10) The suggested cause of abnormal behavior from the cognitive perspective is:
a) Faulty learning
b) Early childhood experiences
c) Unconscious unresolved conflicts
d) Faulty thinking
11) The most frequently occurring major psychological disorder is:
a) Phobias
b) Schizophrenia
c) Depression
d) Bipolar disorder
12) Person-centered therapy is best described as:
a) Confrontive
b) Structured
c) Nondirective
d) Objective
13) Systematic desensitization is used in treatment of:
a) Schizophrenia
b) Mood disorders
c) Phobias
d) Somatoform disorders
14) Guilford’s structure of intellect model of intelligence is notable because:
a) It separate operations from content and product
b) It rejects the idea of gender feature
c) It yields 180 unique intellectual factors
d) All of these
15) The most important criterion of whether an individual should be considered retarded is that individual’s:
a) Social competence
b) Mental age
c) IQ
d) Ability to learn to speak
16) Improved job satisfaction result in—-in work performance and—– in turnover:
a) Decrease: decrease
b) Increase: no change
c) Increase: increase
d) No change: decrease
17) Some employers allow their employees to create their own sceduals within set parameters. This is called:
a) Job sharing
b) Job enrichment
c) Time sharing
d) Flextime
18) All of the following are some of the major sources of work stress EXCEPT:
a) Little control
b) Shift work
c) High decision latitude
d) Discrimination
19) Bonuses, recognition awards, praise and time off improve motivation through the application of:
a) Performance appraisal
b) Benefits
c) Reinforcement
d) Objective criteria
20) The Binet-Simon scale was adapted for American use by:
a) Thurston
b) Terman
c) Wechsler
d) Binet


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